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Jan 20, 2018
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APPR: Frequently Asked Questions

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Glossary of Terms


APPR (Annual Professional Performance Review)

A state-governed process for evaluating New York's teachers and principals. Teachers and principals are given a number grade and a corresponding school year. A portion of that grade is directly tied to student performance on state exams or other state-approved learning measures, and district APPR plans must be submitted to and approved by the New York State Education Department.

Growth score

A state-provided score given to teachers in grades 4 through 8, derived from results on the state English language arts and math exams.

Appeals process

A process required by edcuation law and negotiated locally, by which teachers or principals can contest their effectiveness ratings.


The process by which observation, students growth and student achievement measures are translated into point scores and by which those numerical scores are then translated into associated effectiveness ratings using a consistent scale.

HEDI rating

An effectiveness rating of Highly Effective, Effective, Developing or Ineffective given to all teachers and principals in the state based on the numerical scores under APPR.


A set of consistent criteria and standards used to outline expectations of quality performance and measure success in achieving those expectations. District must choose from a list of state-approved rubrics to guide evaluation and scoring of classroom observations.

Student Learning Objectives (SLO)

An academic goal for the school year set by teachers and administrators for the group of students that is specific and  and measurable, based on prior student learning data and aligned to state curriculum standards. Assessment of student progress toward SLOs is used to determine a student growth score for teachers who are not provided a growth score by the state. The process by which the SLOs are set, reviewed and assessed is determined at the local level.

Teacher/Principal Improvement Plan (TIP/PIP)

A professional development plan provided to teachers/principals rated as developing or ineffective. A TIP/PIP includes identification of needed areas of improvement, a timeline for achieving improvement, the manner in which the improvement will be assessed, and, where appropriate, activities to support a teacher's/principal's improvement in those areas.

Benchmark assessment

Tests administered throughout the school year that give teachers immediate feedback on how students are meeting academic standards. Benchmark assessments can be used as a tool to measrue individual student progress toward academic goals, and to help teachers identify content areas that need further attention or students who need extra help.

Common Core Learning Standards (CCLS)

New, national learning standards (also called Common Core State Standards,, which are being adopted by states across the country as part of the Race to the Top education reform agenda. These standards replaced the existing learning standards, and govern what is being taught in New York's schools.

Growth model

The NYS Education Department system for comparing the progress (i.e., academic growth) of similar students, and by which those numerical scores are then translated into associated effectiveness ratings using a consistent scale. Learn more about state selected growth measures here:

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